appreciated today.
To start from Richards onward, we encounter C. Murcia (1991), who renders only a causal and shallow treatment of this notion. Cook (1991) most probably is the first to attempt to discriminate and classify reading strategies scientifically, resorting part to psychology to consolidate his classification. His taxonomy is nearly the same as O’Malley and Chamot’s (1990), discussed earlier including three basic categories of metacognitive, cognitive, and socioaffective strategies.
Duffy (1993) does not distinguish these categories and the strategies within them in terms of certain factors. To him, Cook’s (1990) classification seemed superfluous, for all strategies contribute to the same overall effect.
Experiments on metacognitive strategies (in reading) are also reported. Of these, Shuyn’s (1992) Ph.D. dissertation could be mentioned in which we learn that it is “…. A Qualitative investigation into the meta-cognitive strategies used by Chinese graduate students as they read academic materials written in their second language” (p.68). As Shuyn concludes, “analysis of the data revealed that ESL academic reading was a very deliberate, demanding and complex process in which the students were actively involved with a repertoire of metacognitive strategies” (p.74). metacognitive strategies tend to be fewer in number, and probably more constant across readers of different racial, ethic, geographical, cultural, or national background. Thus any conclusion drawn on them could be safely extended to entire learners. However, this is not the case for cognitive strategies, which, seem to differ across individual learners. But metacognitive strategies offer another problem for investigation in that they are internal mental activities performed before, in time of, and after decoding a printed message, and as the readers themselves also are not aware of them, the distinction between metacognitive and cognitive strategies is fuzzy as they do not have a defined boundary to set them off from each other. When it goes to social strategies in reading, it seems that nobody has dealt with them systematically.
Care should be exercised on the phrase reading strategies for it can be ambiguous as it is not known whether it refers to those applies in L1 or L2. Brown (1994) certifies that “although extensive research has been conducted on the effects of teaching reading strategies on the reading comprehension of the native English speakers, research in this area has not been conducted with students in English as a second language. Janzen (1996) states that “….in TESOL little has been published that relates to teaching reading strategies in an ongoing reading program” (p. 91).

Here is Oxford’s (1990) classification of reading strategies:
1. Direct strategies
I. Memory strategies
A. Creating mental linkage
1. Grouping
2. Associating/ elaborating
B. Applying images and sounds
1. Using imagery
2. Semantic mapping
3. Using keywords
4. Representing sounds in memory
C. Reviewing well
1. Structured reviewing
D. Employing action
1. Using physical response or sensation
2. Using mechanical techniques
II. Cognitive strategies
A. Practicing
1. Repeating
2. Formally practicing with sounds and writing systems
3. Recognizing and using formulas and patterns
4. Recombining
5. Practicing naturalistically
B. Receiving and sending messages
1. Getting the idea quickly
2. Using resources for receiving and sending message
C. Analyzing and reasoning
1. Reasoning deductively
2. Analyzing expressions
3. Analyzing contrastively (across languages)
4. Translating
5. Transferring
D. Creating structure for input and output
1. Taking notes
2. Summarizing
3. Highlighting
III. Compensation strategies
A. Guessing intelligently
1. Using linguistic clues
2. Using other clues
B. Overcoming limitations in speaking and writing
1. Switching to the mother tongue
2. Getting help
3. Using mime or gesture
4. Avoid communication partially or totally
5. Selecting the topic
6. Adjusting or approximating the message
7. Coining words
8. Using circumlocution or synonym
2. Indirect strategies
I. Metacognitive strategies
A. centering your learning
1. Over viewing and linking with already known material
2. Paying attention
3. Delaying speech production to focus on listening
B. Arranging and planning your learning
1. Finding out about language learning
2. Organizing
3. Setting goals and objectives
4. Identifying the purpose of language task
5. Planning for a language
6. Seeking practice opportunities
C. Evaluating your learning
1. Self-monitoring
2. Self-evaluating
II. Affective strategies
A. Lowering your anxiety
1. Using progressive relaxation
2. Using music
3. Using laughter
B. Encouraging yourself
1. Making positive statements
2. Taking risks wisely
3. Rewarding yourself
C. Taking your emotional temperature
1. Listening to your body
2. Using a checklist
3. Writing a language learning diary
4. Discussing your feeling someone else
III. Social strategies
A. Asking questions
1. Asking for clarification or verification
2. Asking for correction
B. Cooperating with others
1. Cooperating with peers
2. Cooperating with proficient users of the new language
C. Empathizing with others
1. Developing cultural understanding
2. Becoming aware of others’ thoughts and feelings
Finally Hsu (2004) discovered that high-proficiency junior high-school students employ reading strategies more frequently than low-proficiency students and use a variety of different strategies in the reading process. High-proficiency students tend to implement comprehension monitoring and problem identification during their reading process. Low-proficiency students are not confident when they encounter many unknown words in the text. Chen (1999) has conducted a survey to investigate the discrepancy of reading strategies for academic purposes between low achievers and high achievers among Taiwanese junior college students. The results demonstrated that the low achievers and the high achievers show different frequencies in applying different reading strategies. In addition, the high achievers employ a wider variety of strategies than the low achievers.

مطلب مرتبط :   دانلود پایان نامه با موضوعreading، language، knowledge Extensive and Intensive Reading Strategies
In Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics (Richards, Platt and Platt, 1992) the terms are defined as the : “Extensive reading means reading in quantity and in order to gain a general understanding of what is read, it’s intended to develop good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure, and encourage a liking for reading. Intensive reading is generally at a lower speed and requires higher degrees of understanding than extensive reading” (p. 133). Harmer (2001) introduces two types or models of reading. He asserts that extensive reading suggests reading at length, often for pleasure and in a leisured way, while intensive reading tends to be more concentrated, less relaxed, and often dedicated not so much pleasure as to the achievement of study goal.
Ranandya and Jacobs (as cited in Richards and Ran
andya, 2002) defined extensive reading as a reading strategy with “generally involved rapid reading of large quantities of material or longer reading for the general understanding with the focus generally on the meaning of what is being read than on the language” (p. 298).
They enumerate some advantage for the extensive reading:
Enhance language learning;
Increase knowledge of the world;
Improves reading and writing skills;
Gives greater enjoyment of reading;
It creates more positive attitudes toward reading;
And provides higher possibility of developing a reading habit (p. 298).
Various styles of reading have been also provided by Hedge (2000), as receptive reading, reflective reading, skim reading, scanning, and intensive reading (p. 195).
And finally, Grabe and Stoller (as cited by Celce-Murcia, 2001) say that major goal for academic reading instruction is the development of strategic readers (rather than disconnected teaching of reading strategies). Strategic readers understand the goals of a reading activity, have a range of well-practiced reading strategies at their disposal, apply them in efficient combinations, monitor comprehension appropriately, recognize miscomprehension, and repair comprehension problems effectively. Strategic readers make use of a wide repertoire of strategies in combination rather than in isolated applications (Celce-Murcia, 2001). Cognitive Strategies
According to Chamot and Kupper (1989), cognitive strategies are approaches “in which learners work with and manipulate the task materials themselves, moving towards task completion” (p. 14). Winstead (2004) defined the cognitive strategy as a “learner-centered approach that takes into consideration the environment or situational context in which the leaner learns, the learner’s knowledge base, intrinsic motivation, in addition to improving the learner’s ability to process information via cognitive and metacognitive approaches” (p. 30). Examples of cognitive strategies include the skills of predicting based on prior knowledge, analyzing text organization by looking for specific patterns, self-questioning, making a summary, taking notes by writing down the main idea or

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