ve text …………………….………………………………………..73
2.2.3 Connectives, text types, and reading comprehension ………..………………………..76
2.2.4 Two Approaches to Text Type Analysis ……..……………………………………….77
2.2.5 Genre and Text Type ………………………………………………………………….79
CHAPTER III: Method
3.1 Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………86
3.2 Participants …………………………………………………………..…………………….88
3.3 Instrumentation …………………………………………………………………………….88
3.3.1 Test of Reading Comprehension …….……………………………………..………….88
3.3.2 Reading strategies questionnaire ……………………………………………………….91
3.4 Procedure …………………..………………………………………………………………91
3.5 Design …………….……………………………………………………………………….93
3.6 Statistical Analysis ………………..……………………………………………………….94
CHAPTER IV: Research and Discussion
4.1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………..96
4.2 Restatement of the Research Hypotheses …………………….……………………………96
4.3 Reliability Analysis ………………………………………………………………………..98
4.4 Descriptive Statistics of the SILL Questionnaire ………………………………………….99
4.5 Descriptive Statistics of the Reading Comprehension Tests ……………….…………….101
4.6 Testing the Hypotheses of the Study ……………………………….…………………….107
4.7 Discussion of the Findings ………………..………………………………………………124
CHAPTER V: Conclusion and Pedagogical Implications
5.1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………….130
5.2 Procedures and Summery of the Findings ….…………………………………………….130
5.3 Pedagogical Implications ………………………………………………………………….131
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research ……………………………….………………………..133
References………………………………………………………………………………………134
Appendices
Appendix A …………………….…………………………………………………………….153
Appendix B …………………….……………………………………………………………..158
Appendix C …………..……………………………………………………………………….160
Appendix D ………..…………………………………………………………………………162
Appendix E ………….………………………………………………………………………..164
Appendix F ……………..…………………………………………………………………….166
Appendix G ……………………………………..……………………………………………167
Appendix H …………………..………………………………………………………………169
Appendix I …………………………………………………………………………………….171
Appendix J ……………………………………………………………………………………173
Appendix K ……………………………………………..……………………………………175
Appendix L …………..……………………………………………………………………….177
Appendix M …………………………………………………………………………………..179

Lists of Tables
Table 2.1 Genres and Text Types ………………..…………………………………………….182
Table 3.1 Readability Statistics of the Texts Selected for Beginners …………………….……183
Table 3.2 Readability Statistics of the Texts Selected for Intermediates ………….…………..184
Table 3.3 Readability Statistics of the Texts Selected for Advanced …………….……………185
Table 3.4 The Variables of the Study …………………………………………………………..186
Table 4.1 Reliability statistics of the reading comprehension test for beginner learners ………187
Table 4.2 Reliability statistics of the reading comprehension test for intermediate learners ….188
Table 4.3 Reliability statistics of the reading comprehension test for advance learners ……….189
Table 4.4 Descriptive statistics of the obtained scores on reading strategy use questionnaire…190
Table 4.5 Normality checks of SILL scores distributions ……………………………………..191
Table 4.6 Descriptive Statistics of the Obtained Scores on expository text comprehension tests …192
Table 4.7 Normality checks of Expository test scores distributions ………………..………….193
Table 4.8 Descriptive Statistics of the Obtained Scores on argumentative text comprehension tests ……………………………………………………………………………………….194
Table 4.9 Normality checks of Argumentative test scores distributions ………………………195
Table 4.10 Correlation between reading strategies and expository text comprehension ……….196
Table 4.11 Correlation between beginner learners’ use of reading strategies and expository text comprehension ……………………………………………………………………………..197
Table 4.12 Correlation between intermediate learners’ use of reading strategies and expository text comprehension ………………………………………………………………………..198
Table 4.13 Correlation between advanced learners’ use of reading strategies and expository text comprehension …………………………………………………………………………….199
Table 4.14 Correlation between reading strategies and argumentative text comprehension …..200
Table 4.15 Correlation between beginner learners’ use of reading strategies and argumentative text comprehension ………………………….…………………………………………….201
Table 4.16 Correlation between intermediate learners’ use of reading strategies an argumentative text comprehension ………………………….…………………………………………….202
Table 4.17 Correlation between advanced learners’ use of reading strategies and argumentative text comprehension …………………………………………………….………………….203
Table 4.18 Model Summary ……………….…………………………………………………..204
Table 4.19 ANOVA of regression model ………..…………………………………………….205
Table 4.20 Model Summary ………………………….………………………………………..206
Table 4.21 ANOVA of regression model ………………………………………………………207
Table 4.22 Model Summary …………………………………………………………..……….208
Table 4.23 ANOVA of regression model
……………………………..……………………….209
Table 4.24 Model Summary ……………………………………………………………………210
Table 4.25 ANOVA of regression model ………………………………………………………211
Table 4.26 Model Summary …………………….……………………………………………..212
Table 4.27 ANOVA of regression model ………………………………………………………213
Table 4.28 Model Summary ……………………………………………………………………214
Table 4.29 ANOVA of regression model ……………………………..……………………….215
Table 4.30 Model Summary ……………………………………………………………………216
Table 4.31 ANOVA of regression model ………………………………………………………217
Table 4.32 Model Summary ……………………………………………………………………218
Table 4.33 ANOVA of regression model ………………………………………………………219

مطلب مرتبط :   دانلود پایان نامه با موضوعreading، argumentative، In

Lists of Figures
Figure 4.1 Distribution of Beginners’ SILL Scores ………..…………………………………..221
Figure 4.2 Distribution of Intermediates’ SILL Scores …………..……………………………222
Figure 4.3 Distribution of Advances’ SILL Scores …………………..………………………..223
Figure 4.4 Distribution of Beginners’ Expository Test Scores …………….…………………..224
Figure 4.5 Distribution of Intermediates’ Expository Test Scores ………………….…………225
Figure 4.6 Distribution of Advances’ Expository Test Scores ………………….……………..226
Figure 4.7 Distribution of Beginners’ Argumentative Test Scores ……………………..……..227
Figure 4.8 Distribution of Intermediates’ Argumentative Test Scores ………….……………..228
Figure 4.9 Distribution of Advances’ Argumentative Test Scores …………………………….229

CHAPTER I

Background and Purpose

1.1 Introduction
Language-teaching methodology has seen a dramatic increase in attention to the strategies investment that learners can make in their own learning process. The learning of any skill involves a certain degree of investment of one’s time and effort. According to brown (2001) A language is probably the most complex set of skills one would ever seek to acquire; therefore, an investment of strategies is necessary in the form of developing multiple layers of strategies for getting that language in to one’s brain.
Reading is a fundamental skill for English foreign/second language (EFL/ESL) learners (Anderson, 2003). Rivers (1981) considers reading as the most significant activity in language classrooms since it acts not only as a source of information and a pleasurable activity, but also as a means of consolidating and extending one’s knowledge of the language. According to Anderson (2003), it is an essential skill for learners of English and for most of learners it is the most important skill to master in order to ensure success in learning. With strengthened reading skill, learners of English tend to make progress in other areas of language learning.
In the last two decades, attention has been paid to understanding what proficient readers typically do while reading, including identifying the strategies they use and how and under what conditions they use those strategies. This line of research has been useful in instructing non-proficient first and second-language readers to increase their awareness and use of reading strategies to improve comprehension (Sheorey & Mokhtari, 2001). For successful reading, students are required to understand the meaning of text, critically evaluate the message, remember the content and apply the new-found knowledge flexibly (Pressley, 2000). In order to reach these objectives, proficient readers use a variety of strategies before, during and after the reading of a text in order to comprehend the text and prevent any problem which may occur during this process. In other words, strategies are considered as the most beneficial tools any reader can use for controlling progress of and for ensuring success in reading. Applying strategic behavior in reading requires that readers intentionally engage in planned actions under their control (Alexander, Graham & Harris, 1998).
Beside the importance of reading strategies, text comprehension is also crucial. Text comprehension is an interactive process in which linguistic elements in a discourse or text interact with each other to create the “texture” of a text (Halliday & Hassan, 1976, de Beaugrande & Dressler, 1981). The second level of interactions is between bottom-up and top-down processing of texts take place in the readers’ minds, or between linguistic knowledge and world knowledge (Eskey, 1988, Grabe & Stoller, 2002). The third level of interaction is an interpretive one between the reader and a text, or between the reader and the writer through a text (Nuttal, 1996, Ozono and Ito, 2003). Lipson and Wixon (1986), among others, claim that research on reading ability as well as reading disability should adopt an interactive view. Such a view takes into account the dynamic process of reading in which the reader, text, process, and the setting conditions of the reading situation interact in an active and flexible manner. This claim should be

دسته بندی : پایان نامه ها

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید